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Melon Farmers


4th March
2010
  

EIRIN...

Film censors of Japan
Link Here

eirin logo EIGA RINRI IINKAI aka EIRIN (Film Classification and Rating Committee) is an independent, non-governmental organization, which has been responsible for the classification of motion pictures since 1956.

When classifying films EIRIN considers eight criteria:

  • theme
  • language
  • sex
  • nudity
  • violence
  • horror
  • drug use
  • criminal behavior
  • context 

EIRIN has four categories

  • G stands for general viewing and means the film is suitable for audiences all ages
  • PG 12 means parental guidance is requested for those under 12 years of age
  • R 15+ is for only those 15 and above
  • R 18+ is only for those 18 and above.

Since EIRIN's rating system is based somewhat on the U.S. and British model, its age restrictions are similar, although the Americans and the British have more categories.

Softcore Sex

Japanese law forbids films from depicting sexual organs and indecent images of minors.

Censorship of sexually explicit content, however, led to the creation and popularity of soft-core porn, or pink films, starting in the 1960s. By the 1980s, however, adult videos had become the norm.

Because EIRIN banned the the display of genitalia or pubic hair, fogging it out or blurring it with a digital mosaic, the producers of pink films developed elaborate ways to self censor, using various props positioned at strategic locations to hide taboo areas.

Despite a drastic decline in the popularity of pink films in recent years, the genre still enjoys a cult following domestically and overseas.

Currently, EIRIN allows the screening of foreign films that display female or male genitalia if the material is not pornographic and fulfils certain conditions.

Hardcore Sex

In the case of adult porn videos and games, several self- regulating organizations are responsible for the screening process and with advising member companies on the changes needed to avoid breaking the law.

Such organizations include the Nihon Ethics of Video Association (Biderin), which was the oldest of the lot but ceased screening activities after it was raided by police in 2007, the Ethics Organization of Computer Software (Sofurin), and the Contents Soft Association.

Organisation

EIRIN tasks five commissioners of various professional backgrounds with executing its policies, maintaining its category divisions and appointing examiners.

The management team consists of five staff members and nine examiners who are responsible for reviewing films and trailers, making category decisions, and advising on cuts or modifications.

According to Kiyotoshi Kodama, EIRIN's secretary general, at least two film examiners are responsible for viewing a single movie.

By simple arithmetic, considering that we handle around 600 films per year, a single examiner would view roughly 150 films during the course of a year, he said.

Kodama said that since the examiners base their evaluations on set principles, their ratings in most cases are unanimous.

But on those rare occasions when examiners disagree, or when the film's applicant objects to an assigned rating, a film can be brought back for further consideration by other examiners.

Although EIRIN has no legal power to ban a film, the rules stipulated by the Japan Association of Theatre Owners, which covers the owners of most of the nation's cinemas, forbids its members from screening films that haven't been classified and OK'd by EIRIN.

EIRIN's income is derived entirely from examination fees, which are currently Yen 2,740 (£20) per minute, plus tax.

World

World Censors' Links

World Ratings a useful guide from Answers.com
Australia Classification Board (previously Office of Film & Literature Classification)
Australia ACMA, Australian Communication and Media Authority, TV Censor
Austria Bundesministerium fr bildung, wissenschaft und kultur
Canada British Columbia - Consumer Protection BC whose remit includes film censorship
Canada Nova Scotia - Maritime Film Classification Board
Canada Québec - Régie du Cinéma
Canada Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
Canada CBSA: Canada Border Services Agency maintains a list of banned films and books
Denmark Medieraadet, classifiers (Danish language)
Europe: PEGI Pan European Game Information
Finland VET, film classifiers who use the word 'classifiers' honestly
France Centre National de la cinématographie: Commission de Classification (French language)
Germany FSF, television regulators (German language)
Germany FSK, film & video censors (German language)
Germany USK, Computer game censors (German language)
Hong Kong Television & Entertainment Licensing Authority (Chinese & English)
Hungary Országos rádió és televízió testlet
India Central Board of Film Certification
India Indian Broadcasting Foundation and Broadcasting Content Complaint Council
Ireland Film Censor Office
Ireland Broadcasting Complaints Commission for radio & TV content
Ireland Censorship of Publications Board
Japan Eirin, Film Classification and Rating Committee
Kenya Film Classification Board
Malaysia Film Censorship Board of Malaysia (LPF)
Malta Board Of Film And Stage Classification
Netherlands Kijkwijzer, self classification guidelines (Dutch & English)
New Zealand Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC)
Nigeria National Film & Video Board (NFVCB)
Nigeria Kano State Censorship Board
Norway Norwegian Media Authority
Poland Krajowa Rada Radiowym i Telewizyjnym (KRRiT) TV & radio censors
Singapore Media Development Authority (MDA)
South Africa Film and Publication Board (FPB)
South Africa Broadcasting Complaints Commission South Africa (BCCSA)
South Korea Game Rating Board
South Korea KMRB, Korea Media Rating Board
Sweden Statens medieråd (Swedish Media Council) The site is Swedish & English language
Switzerland Commission du Cinéma du Canton de Genève & Vaud
UAE National Media Council
USA MPAA Censors, but at least their advice is voluntary
USA MPAA's Classification and Rating administration (CARA) searchable ratings website
USA ESRB Entertainment Software Ratings Board. Self assessed computer game ratings